วันอาทิตย์ที่ 6 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2551

การใช้ to infinitive

การใช้ to infinitive และหน้าที่ของ to infinitive ในทางไวยากรณ์
เราสามารถใช้ to infinitive ในรูปของการกระทำที่กำลังดำเนินอยู่อย่างต่อเนื่อง(continuous), รูปของการกระทำที่สำเร็จสมบูรณ์ (perfect) และรูปของกรรมวาจก (passive) ได้ เช่น
  • Joe seems to like his course. (รูป to infinitive)
  • He seems to be settling in well. (to infinitive ในรูป continuous )
  • He seems to have made a lot of friends. (to infinitive ในรูปของ perfect)
  • He seems to have been working hard. (to infinitive ในรูปของ perfect continuous)
  • He seems to be regarded as a good student. (to infinitive ในรูป passive)
  • He seems to have been awarded excellent marks. (to infinitive ในรูปของ perfect passive)

เช่นเดียวกับ Gerund กล่าวคือ รูปกริยา to infinitive ในทางไวยากรณ์ เราใช้ทำหน้าที่ได้หลายอย่างดังนี้:

1. เป็นกรรมของกริยา เช่น

  • I want to win.
  • We intend to complain.

2. เป็นประธานของกริยา เช่น

  • To fail now would be very frustrating.
  • To tell the truth can be very difficult.

3. เป็นส่วนเติมเต็ม (complement)โดยวางไว้หลัง linking verb เช่น

  • To understand is to forgive.
  • The purpose of this valve is to control the flow.
  • My plan is to spend two nights in Taipei.
  • The idea is to meet at 6.30 for dinner.

เราจะใช้รูปกริยา to infinitive เมื่อไหร่?

คำตอบคือ เราสามารถใช้ to infinitive ตามหลัง verbs ต่างๆมากมายหลายคำ เช่น

  • David and I agreed to meet at 4 o'clock.
  • I'll arrange to see the dentist straight away.
  • I hope to go university.
  • I managed to repair the lock.
  • I'm going to meet Philip tomorrow.
  • We intend to move house soon.
  • I'm longing to see you.
  • I like to get up early in the mornings.
  • I'd hate to make a mistake.
  • I'd love to go to the museum.
  • Maggie began to cry.
  • It's starting to rain.
  • Jane continued to read her novel.
  • Joe has decided to train as a doctor.
  • Paul has learnt to swim.
  • I didn't mean to hurt you.
  • Mum promised to drive me to the class.
  • Dad refused to sign the document.
  • We want to have a meal before the concert.
  • Try to keep calm.
  • They seem to approve of my idea.
  • John appeared to know all the answers.
  • I hadn't planned to take a holiday just yet.
  • Dad refused to give me any more money.
  • Charlie offered to cook dinner for us all.
  • Did you expect to succeed?
  • I have (or have got) leave in five minutes.
  • I've forgotten to bring my passport.
  • Do you need to change any money?
  • Did you remember to close the windows?
  • You deserved to win.
  • I prefer to write my novels by hand.
  • I can't bear to cause unhappiness.
  • We regret to announce that tonight's performance is cancelled.

ในรูปประโยคปฏิเสธ เราเติม not หรือ never ไว้หน้ารูปกริยา to infinitive เช่น

  • Promise never to tell anyone.
  • I prefer not to drive at night.
  • She seemed not to realize her danger.
  • I managed not to laugh.
  • Try not to get so angry.

กริยาบางคำ ตามด้วยรูปกรรม (object) ก่อนแล้วจึงตามด้วยรูปกริยา to infinitive เช่น

  • The travel agency allowed us to change our booking.
  • Sue asked me to help her.
  • The policeman told us sto wait.
  • Anne persuaded me to join her choir.
  • Remind me to buy more noodles.
  • We expect you to do your best.
  • Who taught those girls to dance?
  • We want you all to concentrate.
  • I forbid you to use my car.
  • The captain permitted the passengers to leave the ship.
  • The doctor advised us to take vitamin pills.
  • I warned Maggie not to leave money around.

รูปกรรม (object) จะทำหน้าที่เป็นประธาน (subject)ในประโยคกรรมวาจก เช่น

  • Maggie was warned not to leave any money around.
  • We were advised by the doctor to take vitamin pills.
  • You are forbiden to use my car.

รูป verb + for + object (noun or pronoun) + to infinitive เช่น

  • arrange for: I've arranged for you to see the dentist.
  • ask for: We asked for our bags to be delivered to our hotel.
  • long for: I was longing for the lesson to end.
  • wait for: Wait for me to give the signal.

เราสามารถใช้รูปกริยา to infinitive ตามหลังคำคุณศัพท์ (adjective) บางคำ เช่น

  • Julie was afraid to cross the road.
  • I'm so glad to see you.
  • I'm reluctant to lend you any more money.
  • I'm sorry to report that we lost the match.
  • I'm pleased to say the children behaved excellently.
  • The kids are all keen to be in the team.
  • I'm determined to get that job.
  • They were eager to hear the latest news.
  • I'm so relieved to know the money arrived safely.
  • Jim was the first to arrive.
  • Helen was the last to leave.
  • Dave was the only one to apologize. (Dave was the only one who did apologize)
  • Dan was likely to win.
  • We're unlikely to meet again.
  • I'm sure to see Jane in the next few days.
  • It's certain to rain tomorrow.
  • Anne is bound to be late.
  • I'm liable to forget.
  • The train's due to leave in two minutes.
  • You're welcome to come with me.
  • Mum's willing to help.
  • Were you able to contact her?
  • Are you ready to begin?
  • I'm not prepared to tolerate this misbehaviour.
  • I was wrong to blame Susie for the mess.
  • You were lucky to escape!
  • I was silly to give up.

รูปประธานกลายเป็นกรรม (object) ของ to infinitive

คำนาม หรือ คำสรรพนาม ซึ่งทำหน้าที่เป็นประธานของรูป linking verb (กริยาที่ใช้เชื่อมประโยค) + คำคุณศัพท์ (adjective) สามารถใช้เป็นกรรม (objective) ของกริยา to infinitive ที่ตามมา ในภาคส่วนเติมเต็ม (complement) ของประโยค เช่น

  • Science programmes are so interesting to watch.
  • Are these nuts good to eat?
  • English verbs are not very easy to learn.
  • Those maths problems were difficult to solve.
  • These sums are quite simple to do.
  • The possibilities are frightening to contemplate.
  • I prefer children as models - they're delightful to paint.

ประธานของ linking verb อาจจะเป็นรูปกรรมของคำบุพบท (preposition) ที่ใช้กับ to infinitive เช่น

  • This futon is very comfortable to sleep on.
  • Elizabeth is fascinating to talk to.
  • She's so entertaining to be with.

adjective + noun + to infinitive เช่น

  • That's an unusual question to ask.
  • Who's the best person to consult?
  • This is a comfortable futon to sleep on.
  • Elizabeth is a fascinating girl to talk to.

verb + direct object + adjective + noun (indirect object) + to infinitive เช่น

  • We considered you the right person to appoint.
  • I found Ruth a delightful companion to travel with.

คำกริยาวิเศษณ์ (adverb) + to infinitive เช่น

  • Cheerio - I'm off to visit Peter.
  • Dad was about to serve lunch.
  • Sam is out to get the top job. (=He's determined to get it)

noun + to infinitive เช่น

  • I've no desire to be famous.
  • I felt an inclination to hit him.
  • We respected Dad's wish to be barried in his native village.
  • Kate had no ambition to travel the world.
  • There's no need to apologize.
  • Jim's decision to retire surprised us all.
  • There'll be an opportunity to ask questions later.
  • I need time to think.
  • John sent me a reminder to book seats.
  • We waited for the order to advance.
  • You were a fool not to claim the reward.

ประธาน (subject)เป็นกรรม (object)ของกริยา to infinitive ในภาคเติมเต็ม (complement)ของประโยค

ประธานของกริยาเชื่อม linking verb + คำนาม ใช้เป็นกรรม (object) ของกริยา to infinitive (หรือ กริยา to infinitive + preposition) ในภาคเติมเต็มของประโยค เช่น

  • Your cooking is always a pleasure to sample.
  • These children are a delight to teach.
  • Cricket is such a bore to take part in.
  • The games must be a nightmare to organize.

คำนาม + กริยา to infinitive เช่น

  • I phoned for a taxi to take us to the airport.
  • Here's a pill to help you sleep.
  • We employed a guide to lead us up the mountain.
  • Have you got a video to keep the children quiet?
  • Take a book to read in case you get bored.
  • Bring a mat to sit on.
  • We've got a problem to discuss.
  • I've a sin to confess.

คำสรรพนามที่ไม่ชี้เฉพาะเจาะจง (indefinite pronouns) และคำบอกปริมาณที่ไม่ชี้เฉพาะเจาะจง (indifinite quantifiers) ถูกใช้บ่อยๆกับรูปกริยา to infinitive เพื่อแสดงความรู้สึกถึงวัตถุประสงค์ (expressing purpose) เช่น

  • Have you all got something to eat?
  • I've got nothing to wear.
  • Isn't there anything else to watch?
  • We have plenty to get on with.
  • The children get lots to do on the farm.
  • Have you any goods to declare?
  • Is there anywhere to talk privately?

โครงสร้างที่มีรูปกริยา to infinitive มักจะขึ้นต้นประโยคด้วยรูปประโยคคือ It is, It was เป็นต้น ตามด้วย คำคุณศัพท์ (adjective) หรือคำนาม (noun)

(It is (หรือ was, เป็นต้น) + adjective หรือ noun + to infinitive)

  • It's silly to argue.
  • It was kind of you to visit my mother.
  • It was stupid of me not to note the time.
  • It's a priviledge to work with you.
  • It would be a shame to give up now.
  • It's my ambition to write a best-seller.
  • It's my plan to finish most of the work by the end of June.
  • It's nice to be home.
  • It's never a good idea to go without sleep.
  • Is it time to leave?
  • It's important to plan your day in advance.
  • It's sensible to check in early.
  • It was a pleasure to meet you.
  • It will be a good opportunity to see Hong Kong.

บทบาทของคำบุพบท for เมื่อใช้กับ to infinitive

  • I've arranged for the furniture to go into storage.
  • I asked for the date to be changed.

โครงสร้างเดียวกันนี้ตามด้วยคำนาม หรือ คำคุณศัพท์บางคำ เช่น

  • The idea is for everyone to stay at our house.
  • It's a great opportunity for us to meet the students.
  • Isn't it time for us to leave?
  • It's ridiculous for us all to squeeze into one car.
  • The situation is difficult for strangers to understand.
  • Is it possible for you all to be ready by nine?
  • It's impossible for them to do the journey in two hours!
  • Are these nuts OK for humans to eat?

รูป enough, too + to infinitive เช่น

  • Are you old enough to drive?
  • It's too late to telephone now.
  • I haven't enough money to pay the bill.
  • The part is too long for a single actor to play.
  • It's too wet to go for a walk.
  • He's tall enough to touch the ceiling.
  • I hope I've worked hard enough to pass my exams.
  • I've been too busy to read the papers.
  • I'm too short-sighted to risk driving without spectacles.
  • It's too foggy to see the island today.
  • Some of the exercises ar etoo strenuous for girls to perform.
  • Is the sea warm enough to swim in?
  • Are the puzzles easy enough for children to solve?
  • In London it was hot enough to go out without a coat.

รูป be + to infinitive ใช้ในประโยคคำสั่งที่หนักแน่นเด็ดขาด หรืออ้างถึงแผนการที่ได้ดำเนินการเรียบร้อยแล้ว เช่น

  • You are to stop writing immediately.
  • You are to be back before midnight.
  • You are to apologize to your mother for your rudeness.
  • We are to report to headquarters at eight o'clock.
  • The Minister is to return to Singapore later this evening.
  • The celebrations were to have been held last week, but there was a delay.
  • Your e-mail message said I was to come straight here.
  • The wedding is not to take place after all.

รูป wh-question words + to infinitive ใช้แสดงถึงการสอบถาม, การรับทราบ, การเรียนรู้และการเสนอแนะ เช่น

  • Helen is learning how to drive.
  • Sue asked me where to buy the best computer.
  • Dad told me which key to press.
  • I didn't know what to do.
  • I had no idea who to ask.
  • Let me know how many copies to print.
  • The nurse told me which pills to take.
  • I can't think what to write.
  • Tell me when to stop pouring.
  • Could you remind me how many flour to use?
  • Does the recipe say how long to boil the mixture for?
  • I'm wondering what clothes to buy for my trip.

รูป in order และ so as + to infinitive เพื่อแสดงถึงวัตถุประสงค์ เช่น

  • Arrive early so as to get a good seat.
  • Sit near the front in order to get a good view.

แต่เราสามารถใช้ to infinitive เพื่อแสดงถึงวัตถุประสงค์ได้ด้วยตัวมันเอง เช่น

  • The baby was taken to the clinic to get her injections.
  • I'm going to the shops to buy some food.
  • To speed up the work, we employed extra staff.

รูป to infinitive ที่ใช้กับสำนวนแสดงวัตถุประสงค์บางอย่าง นิยมวาง to infinitive เช่นนั้นไว้ต้นประโยค เช่น

  • To be fair, she didn't mean to cause trouble.
  • To be honest, I didn't like the play much.
  • To put it more simply, a fact is just an interpretation.

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